None of the instructive chapters of the Carolina[3] which speaks of “cutting of ears,” “cutting of noses,” “blinding,” “chopping of fingers,” “beheading,” “breaking on the wheel,” “burning,” “pinching with burning tongs,” “quartering,” etc., was left unpractised by the gracious lord and master at his pleasure.

In the degree as the purely feudal empire was falling apart, bonds of unity were becoming weakened, great feudal vassals were turning into almost independent princes, and cities of the empire on the one hand, the knights of the empire on the other, were forming alliances either against each other, or against the princes or the emperor.

Kingdom of Hanover Already they were almost independent of the emperor, and possessed the major part of sovereign rights.

Ngai Te Rangi Iwi: 1864 1865 Uruguayan War Empire of Brazil Colorados Uruguay: 1864 1865 Mejba Revolt: Beylik of Tunis: Tax … Under these conditions the situation of the classes emerging from mediaeval times had considerably changed. Basically they remained opposed to sacrificing their sovereignty to Prussia.  Kingdom of Italy

Germany was immediately blockaded and had to rely on its own resources and those of Austria-Hungary and contiguous nonbelligerents such as The Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland.

Those who had dared to defy royal authority were forced to pay the penalty of harassment, exile, imprisonment, or even death. Not in vain did all the official estates of the empire live on the exploitation of the peasants. Germany was unable to feed itself, and after the severe winter of 1916–17 malnutrition and even starvation were not uncommon. Towards such cities and baronies they appeared in the role of centralisers, while as far as the imperial power was concerned, they were the decentralising factor. The attempt to achieve national unification through liberal reform was followed by an attempt to achieve it through conservative statesmanship. Civilisation in Germany existed only in spots, around the centres of industry and commerce; but even the interests of these individual centres diverged widely, with hardly any point of contact. Principality of Lippe The knighthood looked upon the clergy with their resplendent grandeur as upon a powerful but superfluous class.

With the growth of the court’s demands, new means for raising revenues were invented, such as the traffic in relics and indulgences, jubilee collections, etc.


In contrast to present-day enfeeblement which appears everywhere after two years of struggle (since 1848) it is timely to present once more to the German people those awkward but powerful and tenacious figures of the great peasant war.

The dire need of the knighthood for money added considerably to their ruin.

Every group was in the way of the other, and stood continually in an overt or covert struggle with every other group.

This opposition demanded control over the city administration and participation in the legislative power either through a general assemblage of the community or through representatives (big council, city committee).

A civilian, Matthias Erzberger of the Centre Party, signed the armistice, which took effect November 11, 1918.

 Russian Empire

Ethiopian Empire, United States

Many of the political concessions made earlier, under the pressure of popular turmoil, were now restricted or abrogated. The war costs were to be paid by the defeated powers of the Triple Entente.
It combined the ruined elements of the old feudal and guild societies with the budding proletarian elements of a coming modern bourgeois society; on the one hand, impoverished guild citizens, who, due to their privileges, still clung to the existing middle-class order, on the other hand, driven out peasants and ex-officers who were yet unable to become proletarians. The king, increasingly gloomy and withdrawn, came under the influence of ultraconservative advisers who preached legitimism in politics and orthodoxy in religion.